Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love by Robert Karen, Ph.D.

Parenting from the Inside Out by Daniel Siegel, M.D. and Mary Hartzell, M.Ed

The Developing Mind by Daniel Siegel, M.D.

Why Love Matters: How Affection Shapes a Baby’s Brain by Sue Gerhardt

Our Babies, Ourselves: How Biology and Culture Shape the Way We Parent by Meredith Small, Ph.D.

The Birth of a Mother: How the Motherhood Experience Changes You Forever by Daniel Stern, M.D. and Nadia Bruschweiler-Stern, M.D.

What’s Going on in There? How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life by Lise Eliot, Ph.D.

Diary of a Baby by Daniel Stern, M.D.

The Attachment Parenting Book : A Commonsense Guide to Understanding and Nurturing Your Baby by William Sears, M.D. and Martha Sears, R.N.

Everyday Blessings: The Inner Work of Mindful Parenting by Jon Kabat-Zinn, Ph.D. and Myla Kabat-Zinn, R.N.

100 Ways to Calm the Crying by Pinky McKay, R.N.

The Science of Parenting by Margot Sunderland

Good Nights : The Happy Parents' Guide to the Family Bed (and a Peaceful Night's Sleep!) by Jay Gordon, M.D. and Maria Goodavage

Being There: The Benefits of a Stay-At-Home Parent by Isabelle Fox, Ph.D.



Beatson J, Taryan S. Predispositions to depression: the role of attachment, The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2003; Apr: 219-25. Carlson, E. & Sroufe, L.A. Contribution of attachment theory to developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. (Eds.) Developmental psychopathology. New York: Wiley, 1995.

Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (Eds.) Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Eisler, R and Levine, D. Nurture, Nature and Caring: We Are Not Prisoners of Our Genes. Brain and Mind; 2002; 3: 9-52.

Hofer M.A. Early symbolic processes: Hard evidence from a soft place; in Gick RA, Bore S (Eds), Pleasure Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Yale University Press, New Haven: 55-78, 1990.

Karen, R. Becoming attached: First relationships and how they shape our capacity to love. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Russek, L.G. and Schwartz, G.E. Perceptions of parental caring predict health status in midlife: a 35-year follow-up of the Harvard Mastery of Stress Study. Psychosomatic Medicine; 1997; 59 (2): 144-149.

Thompson, R.A. Chapter 13. Early attachment and later development. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (Eds.) Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Weinfield, N.S., Sroufe, L.A., Egeland, B. & Carlson, E.A. Chapter 4. The nature of individual differences in infant-caregiver attachment. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (Eds.) Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.


Anders, T., Goodlin-Jones, B., & Sadeh, A. Chapter 20. Sleep disorders. In Zeanah, C. H. (Ed.) Handbook of infant mental health (second edition). New York: Guilford Press, 2000.

Anisman H, Zaharia MD, Meaney MJ, Merali Z. Do early-life events permanently alter behavioral and hormonal responses to stressors? International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 1998; Jun-Jul;16(3-4):149-64

Commons, M.L. and Miller, P.M. Emotional Learning in Infants: A Cross-Cultural Examination. Paper presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Philadelphia, February 1998.

Gunnar M.R. Studies of the human infant’s adrenocortical response to potentially stressful events, New Directions for Child Development 1989; Fall: 3-18. Research 

Hofer M.A. On the nature and consequences of early loss, Psychosomatic Medicine 1996; Nov- Dec;58(6):570-81. 

Ludington-Hoe SM, Cong X, Hashemi F. Infant crying: nature, physiologic consequences, and select interventions, Neonatal Network 2002; Mar 21: 29-36.

Middlemiss, W. Work in progress:  Defining problematic infant sleep:  Shifting focus from deviance to difference.  Zero to Three, 2004, 24: 46-51. 

Middlemiss, W. Infant sleep:  A review of normative and problematic sleep and interventions.  Early Child Development and Care, 2004; 174: 99-122.

Morelli, G.A., Rogoff, B., Oppenheim, D., Goldsmith, D. (1992). Cultural variation in infants’ sleeping arrangements: questions of independence. Developmental Psychology, 1992; 28(4), pp. 604-613.

Okami P, Weisner T, Olmstead R (2002) Outcome correlates of parent-child bedsharing; an eighteen-year longitudinal study, Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics 23: 244- 254.Segawa, M. Epochs of development of the sleep-wake cycle reflect the modulation of the higher cortical function particular for each epoch. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 2006; 4: 4-15.

Small, M, F. Our babies, ourselves; How biology and culture shape the way we parent. New York: Anchor Books, 1998.

AAIMHI position paper on controlled crying



Bowlby, J. A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. New York: Basic Books, 1990.

Bowlby, J. Separation: Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD, Williams KD (2003) Does rejection hurt? An FMRI study of social exclusion, Science, 2003: Oct: 290-92. 

Gunnar MR, Donzella B. Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2002; Jan-Feb: 199-220

Gordon M. Roots of empathy: responsive parenting, caring societies, The Keio Journal of Medicine, 2003; Dec;52(4):236-43.

Kobak, R. Chapter 2. The emotional dynamics of disruptions in attachment relationships. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (Eds.) Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Polan, H.J. and Hofer, M.A. Psychobiological Origins of Infant Attachment and Separation Responses. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (Eds.) Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Panksepp J. Neuroscience: feeling the pain of social loss, Science 2003; Oct 10;302(5643):237-39.

Sroufe, A. Emotional development: The organization of emotional life in the early years, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Stern, D.N. (1985). The interpersonal world of the infant
. New York: Basic Books, 1985.

Tennes, K. The role of hormones in mother-infant transactions. In R.N. Embde and R. J. Harmon (Eds.), The development of attachment and affiliative systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1982.


Early Child Care

Ahnert L, Gunnar MR, Lamb ME, Barthel M. Transition to child care: associations with infant-mother attachment, infant negative emotion, and cortisol elevations, Child Development 2004; May-Jun: 639-50. 

Ahnert, L., Pinquart, M., and Lamb, M. Security of Children’s Relationships with Nonparental Care Providers: A Meta-Analysis. Child Development, May/June 2006; 74 (3): 664-679.

Belsky, J. Developmental Risks (Still) Associated with Early Child Care. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2001; 42: 845-859.

Belsky J. The “effects” of infant day care reconsidered. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 1988;3(3):235-272. 

Belsky, J. Infant Daycare: a cause for concern?, Zero to Three, September 1986: 1–7

Dettling AC, Gunnar MR, Donella B. Cortisol levels of young children in full-day childcare centres: relations with age and temperament, Psychoneuroendocrinology 1999; Jun: 519-36. 

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. Child care and child development: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care. In: Friedman SL, Haywood HC, eds. Developmental follow-up: Concepts, domains, and methods. San Diego, Calif: Academic Press; 1994:377-396. 

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. The effects of infant child care on infant-mother attachment security. Child Development 1997;68(5):860-879. 

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. Child care and mother-child interaction in the first 3 years of life. Developmental Psychology 1999;35(6):1399-1413. 

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. Early child care and self-control, compliance and problem behavior at twenty-four and thirty-six months. Child Development 1998;69(4):1145-1170. 

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. Does amount of time spent in child care predict socioemotional adjustment during the transition to kindergarten? Child Development 2003;74(4):976-1005. 

Watamura, S., Donzella, B., Alwin, J. and Gunnar, M. Morning to afternoon increases in cortisol concentrations for infants and toddlers at a childcare centre, age differences and behavioural correlates. Child Development, 2003, 74 (4), 1006–20.



Bergman N. More than a cuddle: skin-to-skin contact is key, The Practising Midwife, 2005; Oct;8(9):44.

Dunn, J., and Richards, M. Observations on the developing relationship between mother and baby in the neonatal period. In Studies in Mother-Infant Interaction, ed. R. Schaffer. New York: Academic Press, 1977.

Jones, N. A., B. A. McFall, and M. A. Diego. Patterns of brain electrical activity in infants of depressed mothers who breastfeed and bottle feed: The mediating role of infant temperament. Biological Psychology 2004; 67:103-24.

Kuzela, A. L., C. A. Stifter, and J. Worobey. Breastfeeding and mother-infant interactions. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 1990; 8:185-94.

Montagu A. Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin, Harper and Row, London, 1971.

Uvnas-Moberg K. Oxytocin may mediate the benefits of positive social interaction and emotions, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 1998; Nov: 819-35.


Brain Development

Perry B.D., Pollard R.A., Blakely T.L., Baker W.L., and Vigilante D. Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation, and ‘use dependent’ development of the brain. How ‘states’ become ‘traits’, Infant Mental Health Journal, 1995; 16: 271-91.

Foster, S. and Hartigan, J. Move Baby Move, Random House, 2006.

Schore, A.N. Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: the Neurobiology of Emotional Development, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hove, UK, 1994.

Schore, A.N. Affect Regulation and Disorders of the Self, Norton, 2003.

Schore, A.N. Affect Regulation and Repair of the Self, Norton, 2003.

Teicher M, Anderson S, Polcari A. Developmental neurobiology of childhood stress and trauma, The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2002; 25: 297-426.

Gerhardt S. Why love matters: how affection shapes a baby’s brain, Brunner-Routledge, Kings Lynn, UK, 2004. 

Eliot, L. What’s Going on in There? How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life Penguin, London, 1999.

Parent Emotional Health

Benoit, D. & Parker, K.C.H. Stability and transmission of attachment across three generations, 1994. Child development, 65,1444-1456.

Fonagy, P. Chapter 3. Understanding of mental states, mother-infant interaction, and the development of the self. In J.M. Maldonado-Duran (Ed.).Infant and toddler mental health: Models of clinical intervention with infants and their families. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2002.

Goleman, D. Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ, Bantam, UK, 2005.

Kitzinger S. Understanding Your Crying Baby. Carroll & Brown, London, 2005.

Meins, E. Sensitivity, security and internal working models: Bridging the transmission gap, 1999. Attachment and Human Development, 1(3), 325-342.

Siegel, D.J. & Hartzell, M. Parenting from the inside out; How a deeper self-understanding can help you raise children who thrive. New York: Penguin Putnam, 2005.

Slade, A. Chapter 25. Attachment theory and research: Implications for the theory and practice of individual psychotherapy with adults. In.Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. (Eds.) Handbook of Attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Steele, H. & Steele, M. Intergenerational patterns of attachment. In.Bartholomew, K. & Perlman, D. (Eds.) Attachment Processes in Adulthood, V.5: Advances in Personal Relationships. London: Jessica Kingsley, 1994.

Stern, D.N. & Bruschweiler-Stern, N. The birth of a mother; How the motherhood experience changes you forever. New York: Basic Books, 1998.